Bazin, who died in 1958, had nothing to do with the university sector, and his acolytes, the young critics, soon to become directors of the New Wave, did not emerge from film school (the IDHEC, Institut des Hautes Etudes Cinematographiques, had been established in 1945). Bazin, like theorists before him, was an enthusiast, if not a film-maker himself. Film theory in France took a new turn around 1960 as academics began to take an interest in the medium, heavily influenced in the early 1960s by structuralism.
The Marxist approach was short-lived, partly because it was too monolithic, but partly too because the attempt to account for spectatorial positioning and pleasure had been in the air since at least Morin’s 1956 Le Cinema ou I’homme imaginaire. Indeed, strictly psychoanalytical approaches did not suddenly appear in the early 1970s: as early as the 1940s, there had been an attempt to analyse Bunuel’s Un chien andalou using Freudian psychoanalysis (see Mondragon, 1949).
El postestructuralismo nos recuerda que las meras definiciones nunca pueden ordenar o acotar completamente la anárquica diseminación del significado. El significado no puede ser «fijado» por el fíat de la aserción léxica. Cuanto más compleja y contradictoriamente es matizado un término, tal y como señala Raymond Williams, en Keywords (1985), con más probabilidad se ha constituido en el foco de debates históricamente significantes.